Base oil is the base ingredient in lubricating greases and motor oils. It is also used in metal processing fluids. Different base oils have different properties. One of the most important properties is their viscosity at different temperatures. Various products require different viscosities. Learn more about base oils groups and their uses. If you want to buy this lubricant from a base oil supplier, understand the following types first.
Group I base oils:
Group I base oils are considered synthetic by some. They are classified by the API as mineral oils but have many synthetic oils characteristics, including high viscosity indexes. Castrol and mobil were recently sued over the marketing of syntec lubricant as synthetic, but the product is made from Group III base oils.
Group II base oils:
Group II base oils are highly refined paraffinic mineral oils. They contain less than 0.03% sulfur, and more than ninety percent saturates. They are hydrocracked, solvent refined, and processed. Group II base oils generally have higher viscosities than group I base oils. Due to their higher viscosity, group II base oils are preferred by most manufacturers.
Group III base oils:
Although group III base oils are not truly synthetic, they are often marketed as such. Synthetic names distinguish them from group II+ and group V base oils, but this classification is loosely defined. Some oils that fall into this category are still unsuitable for automotive use. It has been difficult to reach a consensus on what constitutes a synthetic oil, though the term has come to be accepted as a lubricant with superior performance. Group III base oils with high viscosity indices in most countries are considered synthetic.
Group IV base oils:
Group IV base oils are a class of synthetic oils with a viscosity index of 125-200. They are created in a chemical plant and are not derived from crude oil. These oils have excellent oxidative stability and low pour points. They are suitable for applications in hot and cold weather.
Group V base oils:
Group V base oils are synthetic oils that contain ester groups. These oils have excellent detergency and can withstand higher temperatures. Group V oils are used for oil additives. They are made of esters and polyolesters and add beneficial properties to other base oils.